However, if such hemorrhages occur, you must immediately undergo a medical examination. Metrorrhagia can cause any infection that has penetrated the uterus, but often it becomes the causative agent of the growth of the endometrium (inner layer of the uterus).
Uterine bleeding, unrelated to menstruation, occurs during cervical erosion, a complex form of endometritis, sarcoma, adenomyosis, cancer.
This disease is difficult. The symptoms of metrorrhagia are often confused with the usual indisposition during the menstrual cycle, but nevertheless it is still possible to distinguish metrorrhagia. She has:
- Acyclic - interruption of normal uterine bleeding.
- Abundant or, conversely, small blood loss. They can also be unequal, that is, on the first day the hemorrhage is significant, on the next day - small.
In addition, the disease is accompanied by symptoms of other inflammatory processes that caused uterine bleeding:
- Increased fatigue.
- Large blood loss (color dark red).
- Temperature rise.
- Severe abdominal pain.
Causes of illness
Metrorrhagia can occur in girls and women. The source of the disease is always damage to the inner layer of the uterus. The main causes of metrorragy are as follows:
- cervical erosion,
- stress, depression,
- uterine fibroids,
- physical overvoltage
- mental fatigue,
- tumor in the uterus and ovaries (myomatous uterus),
- hormonal disorders,
- prolonged stay in a negative environment (for example, increased hazard at work).
Slight pain may be present in the stomach.
This term is called neuroendocrine disruption, affecting the work of sex hormones. When such a violation changes the nature of menstruation, which ultimately causes acyclic bleeding. There are 2 types of dysfunctional metrorrhagia: ovulatory and anovulatory.
- Ovulatory - with this phenomenon, ovulation occurs, but with noticeable deviations. They manifest themselves in the form of irregular periods of the menstrual cycle. If ovulation is imperfect, a woman cannot have a child.
- Anovulatory is the most common form of the disease. Ovulation does not occur, but menstruation with a single-phase cycle proceeds as usual. The causes of this disease are as follows:
- Oocyte death due to follicle atresia (underdevelopment).
- The death of the egg due to the maturation of the follicle and the inability of the mature egg to break free. In this case, the follicle remains alone (persistence).
Both phenomena cause profuse bleeding and the proliferation of the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium). Such hormonal disorders occur due to overwork, vitamin deficiency, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system, acute infections and nervous diseases.
Premenopause is a period of lower estrogen due to low ovarian activity. The process is typical for women aged 40-50 years, but it can also touch on earlier years. Premenopause is a completely normal process in the female body, it ends after the ovaries stop forming eggs.
Premenopausal metrorrhagia suggests that polyps have formed in the uterus. These benign tumors often cause miscarriage, premature birth.
Because of polyps, a fertilized egg cannot fix in the uterus. During such periods, menstrual bleeding is either absent or lasts for more than 7 days, and in abundant form. In premenopause, these phenomena can mean pathologies in the uterus and other inflammations in the reproductive system.
Uterine bleeding during menopause
Metrorrhagia in menopause occurs due to hormonal failure or the presence of cancer in the body. A provoking factor may be various tumors or formations in the pelvic area.
Bleeding in menopause is accompanied by sharp, abrupt pain in the lower abdomen. The presence of such a sign indicates a serious disturbance in the body, so a woman should immediately consult a doctor.
In the same period, women often have a whole bunch of different diseases. New growth in the ovaries is not uncommon in women over the age of 50 years. If an ovarian cyst is found during menopause, the doctor prescribes surgery. The only way to eliminate the tumor.
Any cyst during menopause is surgically removed. This is necessary to prevent the risk of developing cancer.
Special attention requires the development of the disease in the postmenopausal period. This is the time when the hormonal function has almost disappeared, and menstruation does not occur anymore. If postmenopausal bleeding occurs, it means that there are serious diseases in the body, including cancer. The causes of postmenopausal metrorrhagia are as follows:
- uterine fibroids,
- oncological processes
- miscarriage, abortion,
- cardiovascular diseases.
Treatment and Prevention
Standard treatment of metrorrhagia is comprehensive. First of all, the doctor does everything possible to stop the bleeding.
If the patient turned in time, still at an early stage of the disease, the doctor prescribes a general strengthening therapy, including the elimination of anemia, the restoration of blood coagulation, the process of uterine contraction. However, it is not always possible to prescribe treatment on time, because metrorrhagia is not so easy to diagnose immediately.
Diagnosis of the disease
To correctly determine the presence of the disease, it is necessary to focus not only on the symptoms. If you find bloody discharge from the vagina, which at the moment should not be, you should immediately consult a doctor. Already in the hospital additional actions will be taken:
- Determining the level of hemoglobin and platelets in the blood.
- Measurement of endometrial thickness and examination of the size of the uterus.
The detection of NMC by the type of metrorrhagia (menstrual disorders) occurs even at the stage of history taking. In this case, the patient will have the following characteristics:
- duration of menstruation less than 3 or more than 7 days,
- scanty or heavy periods of menstruation that manifest themselves in a non-menstrual cycle,
- sharp lower abdominal pain.
NMC in the reproductive period (from 20 to 35 years) is a frequent and normal phenomenon. However, if abnormalities are caused by metrorrhagia, the disease can provoke a decrease in the woman's ability to conceive.
Treatment of metrorrhagia begins with the elimination of the disease that caused the bleeding. If uterus pathology is found, the patient is prescribed curettage of the uterus.
If ovarian dysfunction is detected, the adrenal glands and cerebral cortex are adjusted. Then - food, the woman make up a special diet that will fill the body with essential elements.
What is dangerous metrorrhagia with menopause?
To consider menopause as a disease or pathological condition is fundamentally wrong. This natural biological process is provided by nature itself. However, multiple external and internal factors negatively affect its course. Accumulated during the life of the disease, and previously ignored manifestations of illness, which previously seemed insignificant. Now they can appear extremely acute. One of such manifestations may be metrorrhagia - the appearance of bleeding that is not associated with the menstrual cycle. This is an alarming symptom requiring careful examination and appropriate therapy.
Given the characteristics of the functioning of the body of women in menopause, the manifestations of metrorrhagia must be treated very carefully. Unfortunately, in some cases, its diagnosis may indicate the presence of a malignant pathology, in particular, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer or adenomatosis. Is it worth mentioning that the success of treatment of these diseases depends largely on how quickly the patient seeks medical help.
The main reasons for the development
Any disease does not arise by itself, there are always certain provocateurs. Postmenopausal metrorrhagia is no exception. In order for the doctor to choose the right treatment tactics, it is necessary to correctly identify the causes of the disease.
- Diseases, including chronic ones, in the female genital area can be attributed to the leading causes of the development of this pathology. The most common cause of blood discharge is endometrial integrity problems, such as the appearance of polyps, ulcers, erosions, myomas, and the presence of oncological processes.
- Very often, to support the hormones during menopause, women take drugs with estrogen. If their concentration exceeds the needs of the body of this particular woman, then the appearance of unexpected bleeding of varying degrees of intensity.
- In the premenopausal stage, anovulation can often be the cause of uterine blood loss. It is such a dyshormonal disorder, which consists in the fact that for some reason an egg re-matures in the ovaries, but it cannot leave it.
- Another cause of the disease may be the pathology of other organs and systems. In particular, a violation of blood clotting, malfunction of the thyroid gland during menopause (hypothyroidism), liver cirrhosis and others.
- One of the factors causing the disease can also be severe fatigue, prolonged stress and general emotional distress. No wonder they say that all diseases come from the nerves. Stress - the strongest provocateurs. Violations of the central nervous system can also intensify this problem.
- Insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals, in particular vitamin C, can also lead to adverse changes in the work of the organs of the reproductive system.
- Intoxication of the organism can also provoke a disease.
Typical symptoms of metrorrhagia during menopause
The main thing that should make you think - the appearance of abnormal bleeding. If we are talking about the premenopausal period, then any bleeding during the period between menstruations, especially abundant and prolonged, should alert. Not a variant of the norm and traces of blood after sexual intercourse.
Important! If the menopause has already stabilized, then any bleeding is dangerous and requires urgent treatment to the clinic. Any delay can lead to irreversible consequences and the development of dangerous conditions.
Concomitant signs of abnormal bleeding caused by internal changes and blood loss can be the following manifestations:
- weakness and fatigue,
- pallor of the skin,
- emotional instability, irritability, tearfulness,
- sharp spontaneous weight loss
- pain in the lower abdomen,
- pain during intercourse.
Diagnosis of uterine bleeding
Appointment of the correct treatment in case of metrorrhagia in the climacteric period relies on previously diagnosing and identifying the factors that provoked the trouble.
In order for the doctor to develop a correct and accurate picture of the situation, the following examinations can be prescribed to the patient:
- direct examination by a gynecologist,
- general blood analysis,
- blood test for hormones
- scraping the endometrium in order to conduct a histological study,
- ultrasound diagnosis of the pelvic organs to identify possible pathologies, as well as determine the thickness of the inner layer of the uterus,
- laparoscopy (about why spotting occurs after laparoscopy, read one of our articles).
Possible treatment options for metrorrhagia
The management tactics of a patient with bleeding symptoms during the menopausal period depends on the severity of symptoms and the overall picture of the process. In some cases, strictly conservative treatment is carried out, while in others, immediate surgical intervention is required.
If blood loss is high, then hospitalization and emergency measures are required, in particular, and surgical measures, in order to optimize the patient’s condition and stop blood loss. Later, the woman is prescribed postoperative drug therapy, based on the collected information about the disease, and strict bed rest. The whole complex of procedures is determined and monitored by the attending physician.
If the total volume of blood loss is not high, the reasons that provoked the discharge are not dangerous for the patient’s life and do not require surgery, and the patient’s condition is consistently satisfactory, then treatment can be carried out outside the hospital.
Women are prescribed medication drugs that increase blood clotting, increase uterine function, stabilize blood hemoglobin levels, level hormone levels, as well as vitamin and mineral preparations.
The absence of oncology and signs of arterial hypertension can be the reason for the appointment of physiotherapy sessions. In any case, the choice of treatment depends, in particular, on factors provocateurs.
If the illness is caused by taking drugs with estrogen hormones, then either their complete cancellation is required, or the selection of other options and dosage adjustment.
Any pathological process is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, early prevention can be the key to women's health at any age. A true helper in this will be maintaining a healthy lifestyle with moderate physical exertion, balanced nutrition, elimination of bad habits, harmonious work and rest regimen, minimization of psychological discomfort.
A woman in the period of menostasis should be extremely attentive to their health. In no case should not postpone the visit to the doctor for fear or unwillingness to notice the problem. After all, only a responsible attitude towards yourself and your body is a sure way to a full life and active longevity.
Postmenopausal metrorrhagia can be characterized both cyclically and acyclically. The causes of such bleeding may be age-related changes in the vaginal endometrium or more serious diseases, so self-treatment is unacceptable.
Postmenopausal metrorrhagia is expressed by such clinical manifestations as prolonged uterine bleeding, lasting 7 days or more. Often occur after a delay of menstruation, are irregular and can cause anemia.
Before prescribing treatment, it is necessary to accurately determine the cause of uterine bleeding. To this end, a series of laboratory studies are conducted that help identify the disease, the consequence of which is metrorrhagia. In some cases, such a reason may be an overdose of drugs with a high estrogen content.
In this case, it is recommended to stop using the drug, replacing it with another one, or to completely abandon such therapy. Sometimes the appearance of uterine bleeding in the postmenopausal period is caused by the occurrence of cancer of the body and cervix.
If anovulation is observed, then curettage from the body of the uterus is done for diagnostic purposes and to achieve a therapeutic effect. Immediately after curettage, a hormone therapy complex is prescribed. If such treatment is not effective and bleeding recurs, the doctor prescribes a surgical removal of the uterus.
Uterine bleeding with menopause can also be caused by the appearance of polyps, inflammation in the endometrium of the uterus, hormonally active tumors in the ovaries, hyperplasia, hypertecosis, tekomatoz.
What else to do
If staphylococcus is added to the inflammatory process, an alcoholic solution of chlorophyllite is added to this mixture. This is a long-term therapy, the course of which has a duration of more than 1 thousand procedures. The prognosis of treatment depends on the nature of the inflammatory process. Postmenopausal metrorrhagia is treated by eliminating anovulatory dysfunction, eliminating metabolic-endocrine disorders, and using hormonal contraception.
In addition to treating the cause of uterine bleeding, the patient is given complete rest, bed rest, cold applied to the lower abdomen, preferably an elevated position of the pelvis 25-30 cm above the level of the body position. Thus, it is possible to alleviate the condition, reduce blood loss.
Uterine bleeding in menopause can be significantly reduced by using herbal preparations that can reduce or stop bleeding, but remember that these are only auxiliary methods of control and they cannot be used as the main treatment. Improvement after phytotherapy is observed after 2-3 weeks. Before use, it is necessary to carefully study the composition, contraindications and the presence of side effects.
Physiology and pathology of the postmenopausal period
Postmenopause is the period of a woman’s life after the onset of menstruation.The state of menopause can be made on the basis of analyzes of the level of estradiol (less than 30 pg /) and an increase in FSH of more than 40 IU / l in serum. The average age of menopause is 51 years. In connection with a decrease in the level of estrogen, this age period accounts for the greatest number of oncological diseases of the genital organs.
Changes in the ovaries and adrenal glands begin before menopause. Reducing the level of progesterone, estrogen and estrone entails many disorders in the body. On the one hand, this is a normal physiological process, and on the other, it can cause significant damage to a woman’s health. About 70% of women are susceptible to such diseases associated with impaired normal ovarian activity.
Symptoms of menopause and their treatment
Older women are more often prone to urogenital disorders for 2-5 years from the beginning of the postmenopausal period. Under the influence of a decrease in the level of estrogen, a symptom of such diseases as atrophic vaginitis, dyspareunia, a decrease in lukriative function and pistourethritis, pollakiuria, urinary incontinence occurs. During this period, prolapse of the genitals may also appear.
In connection with the occurrence of estrogen deficiency, the number of cardiovascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis increases. Help in combating such symptoms can be preventive measures: sports and healthy, nutritious meals. Diseases of this nature are treated by prescription and under close medical supervision.
Older women face problems with unwanted facial hair. The solution may be her depilation and hormone replacement therapy.
Loss of skin elasticity leads to sagging breasts, contours of the face and body. Massage courses, sports, healthy nutrition, skin care products and hormone therapy courses will come to the rescue.
Another of the most serious consequences of postmenopause is osteoporosis, which makes bones fragile and thin the skeleton. In addition to hormone replacement therapy, a diet high in calcium, magnesium, sunbathing and gymnastics is prescribed.
The walls of the vagina atrophy, thin, itching. With this problem it is necessary to deal with creams with estrogen, the use of artificial lubricants. A good measure will be the continuation of sexual life.
Increased risk of arthritis is reduced with regular exercise, taking lung painkillers, applying ointments for the joints. Severe pain can only be treated under the supervision of a specialist.
Often, postmenopause is accompanied by infectious diseases of the urinary tract and enuresis. Infections are "killed" with antibiotics. Enuresis is treated with hormonal therapy in combination with strengthening the muscles of the pelvis and a diet with a high content of dietary fiber.
Vaginal discharge in the postmenopausal period does not change its consistency, color and smell - this is the norm. Postmenopause does not affect these indicators. Except for the quantity, which is significantly reduced. But if the discharge after menopause has changed, this may be the first symptom of the development of pathologies. The cause can be either an infection or a hormonal failure.
During menopause, urogenital disorders may develop. Depending on the rate of progression of hormonal deficiency, complaints of dryness in the vagina, itching, burning sensation and extreme discomfort appear. Against the background of such symptoms, a secondary infection may join. Discharges acquire an unpleasant, peculiar odor, change color, increase in volume.
Against the background of all the changes that characterize postmenopausal, excretions are one of the first sources of information for a woman that a failure has occurred in her body, which requires immediate treatment.
The hormonal imbalance that occurs during this period can also lead to bloody discharge, which should be the reason for an urgent appeal to the gynecologist. Problems of this nature are solved both by medical and surgical methods.
Postmenopausal pain syndromes
The pain of menopause is experienced by most women. The nature and location of the site may vary.
Chest pains occur due to the replacement of glandular tissues with fibrous and fatty tissues. If there are no diseases of the mammary glands, the cause of such pain can be severe psycho-emotional stress.
Painful sensations in the abdomen indicate the presence of problems in the urogenital system or intestines, the cause of which may be a decrease in estrogen levels.
Headaches - constant menopause satellites. They are the body's usual reaction to stress and depression. The treatment will be the elimination of the causes and the adoption of analgesics.
Pain in the back, lower back, and joints should not just be relieved with painkillers, as they are a manifestation of emerging diseases such as arthritis and arthrosis, osteoporosis. You need a comprehensive treatment under the supervision of specialists.
If nipples hurt during menopause or strange discharge from them appears, it can be a symptom of serious diseases, such as ductal papilloma, mastopathy, mastitis, galactorrhea, breast duct ectasia, cancer. Consultation and examination of a mammologist are essential.
Chest pain during menopause is often confused with heart pain. Cardialgia is one of the satellites of menopause. Manifested by chills, increased sweating, rush of blood to the head. These symptoms are worse at night. The appearance of such signs should be a reason to visit the cardiologist and rheumatologist.
Phytotherapy for postmenopause
Herbal medicine for the treatment of postmenopausal manifestations has a very effective effect on the general condition of the patient. However, it cannot be a substitute for hormone therapy prescribed by the attending physician.
In nature, there are plants that are organic substitutes for estrogen. These include:
- Hypericum dimmed. It is used for the treatment of climatic neurosis, reduces the frequency and strength of hot flashes.
- Ginseng. Reduces fatigue and reduces stress.
- Licorice. It causes estrogenic activity of the body, improves the condition of bone tissue.
- Angelika Sinensis. Improves sleep quality, relieves anxiety and irritability
- Sage. Significantly reduces sweating, as well as used for insomnia, nervous exhaustion, heart palpitations. The same properties have ziziphus and astragalus.
Lifestyle during postmenopause
Significantly facilitate the manifestations of postmenopause will help all the famous "three whales" of a healthy life.
- Change your diet in favor of healthy. It is absolutely necessary to switch to proper nutrition, taking into account the age needs of the body for vitamins and trace elements.
- Playing sports and physical activity does not harm anyone, and during the period of postmenopause, it will also help reduce the risk of diseases of the joints, as well as energize.
- Stressful and depressive states will help to overcome a full, healthy sleep, counseling a psychologist.
- It is absolutely necessary to give up bad habits, such as smoking and overeating. Excess weight leads to a decrease in the production of estrogens, which are already insufficient at this time. Therefore, getting rid of these habits will help the body feel better.
Metrorrhagia is uterine bleeding. It can be of different intensity and have different causes. The negative trait of such bleeding is that women often take them for menstrual flow, and do not seek help in a timely manner. With this approach, the disease that caused them may progress quite strongly. Therefore, it is very important to know the symptoms of metrorrhagia and to be able to distinguish it from menstrual bleeding.
How is it manifested?
In any period, both reproductive and during menopause, it is quite difficult to distinguish such bleeding from menstrual bleeding. At the same time, in the period of hormonal failure due to adjustment, it is even more difficult to do, since the menstrual cycle is disturbed and becomes extremely irregular. In this case, it is impossible to track whether the bleeding is menstrual or acyclic.
Premenopausal metrorrhagia is a little easier to diagnose. Since during this period the menstrual cycle is more or less regular. Therefore, the appearance of acyclic bleeding is impossible not to notice. Moreover, if the blood loss is very significant, then the woman turns to the doctor, usually in a timely manner. But even with small acyclic bleeding, you need to consult a doctor.
In the menopause
Menopause is actually the last menstruation. If at this moment, at the same time as the monthly, the manifestation of metrorrhage began, then it is extremely difficult to distinguish it. The main diagnostic sign can be very severe pain and heavy bleeding. In addition, if the discharge did not stop after 6 days, and still retain a high intensity, then you should consult a doctor.
Throughout the climax, you must follow the cyclical secretions. Abundant clearly acyclic discharge should be a reason for seeking medical attention. Concomitant symptoms can be headaches, asthenia, weakness, anemia, nausea, palpitations. Sometimes there is severe pain in the lower abdomen. Body temperature may rise.
After passing the last menstruation should be at least one year. If during this time there was no bleeding, then we can say that postmenopause has occurred. During this period and after it, there can be no vaginal bleeding at all. Therefore, any appearance of bleeding is considered a deviation from the norm and requires immediate medical attention, as postmenopausal metrorrhagia may indicate a serious pathology.
Metrorrhage can occur for the following reasons:
- The presence of tumors in the uterus,
- Mucosal damage,
- Infectious or inflammatory process,
- Cardiovascular diseases.
Correct determination of the cause is the basis of successful treatment.
Prevention as such is difficult to carry out. This is due to the fact that the phenomenon of metrorrhagia is not a disease, but a symptom. And it can be caused by a variety of reasons. Therefore, prevention is reduced to the general rules for maintaining the health of the reproductive system and a healthy lifestyle:
- Balanced diet reduced calorie. Avoiding salty, spicy, fried, fatty, preservatives, as well as dyes. Fractional nutrition at least five times a day in small portions,
- Maintain hygiene of the genitals. Use of barrier contraception during intercourse,
- Refusal of bad habits - alcohol, smoking,
- Periodic examinations at the gynecologist,
- Avoiding hypodynamia. Moderate exercise, without excessive, especially power, loads,
- Normalization of the day regimen.
Compliance with these rules will lead to the fact that the metrorrhage in menopause is unlikely.
Essence of pathology
What is metrorrhagia and how does it differ from menorrhagia? Menorrhagia is always associated with the menstrual cycle. Metrorrhagia is any uterine bleeding that does not occur at the time of menstruation, more often it proceeds in the manner of hyperpolymenorrhea. Bleeding can occur for various reasons at any age. This pathology does not have a periodicity, it is of varying intensity, duration, but it is always an indicator of violations in the work of the female reproductive system.
Such bleeding can occur for a variety of reasons, spontaneously, at any time, they can not be predicted. Before the onset of menopause, throughout the entire fertile age, the menstrual cycle dominates the life of women, the regularity of which is an indicator of health. A normal cycle always has 2 phases:
- in the first phase, there is an active production of estrogens due to the active work of the ovaries, the uterine mucosa is developing, preparing for the adoption of a fertilized egg,
- in the second half of the cycle, progesterone dominates, its purpose is to preserve the pregnancy, if it does not come, the progesterone level drops, the uterine mucosa rejects, menstruation occurs - this is the end of the cycle.
With metrorrhagia, such a process in the uterus is disrupted for various reasons.
There is an ovulatory and anovulatory metrorrhagia. The second case is more common, there is no ovulation, the egg does not come out of the follicle, the menstrual cycle proceeds, but in one phase. Another type is ovulatory, when ovulation takes place, but it occurs with various deviations, periods of the menstrual cycle become uneven. In such cases, female infertility develops.
Causes of disease
When a woman is diagnosed with metrorrhage, the problems can be both gynecological and extragenital. If pathology occurs at a juvenile age, i.e. before puberty, it can be caused by:
- unformed hormonal background,
- ovarian cysts exhibiting hormonal activity
- various disorders of the blood coagulation system, both congenital and acquired (thrombocytopenia, leukemia, increased bleeding).
Reproductive age has a different etiology in metrorrhages:
- cervical erosion,
- adenomyosis, endometriosis,
- polyps, cysts, fibroids and fibroids of the uterus, especially submucous, i.e. growing in the submucosal layer
- infections and inflammatory diseases of the genital sphere - endometritis, adnexitis, salpingoophoritis (in 50% of cases of all metrorrhagia), ulcerative colpitis,
- hormonal changes in pathologies of the endocrine glands (diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, adrenal dysfunction, ovarian dysfunction),
- arterial hypertension, endometrial hyperplasia,
- cancer or uterine sarcoma,
- atony of the uterus and its damage in various manipulations or accidents,
- any pathology of pregnancy - ectopic pregnancy, when there is placental presentation, any abortion (pharmabort, vacuum abortion, miscarriage).
In premenopause (45-55 years) metrorrhagia connected:
- with fibroids at this age, polyps, diabetes mellitus, disorders of the adrenal glands, ovaries, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and lung abnormalities, malignant tumors in the thyroid gland, brain, kidneys and lungs,
- with intoxication and work in hazardous production, constant vibration at the workplace (seamstress, textile production, bulk cargo conveyors, work with mercury, acetone, lacquer paints, gasoline),
- stagnation and slowing blood circulation in the pelvic organs, hormones.
Endometrial hyperplasia often develops at this age.
Postmenopausal and postmenopausal metrorrhagia can be caused by the development of oncology. Only after its exclusion can other causes be considered: stress, obesity, endocrine pathologies, polyps, infections, intoxication, adenomyosis, endometriosis, etc. At this age, pathology may manifest itself in the form of hemorrhage or heavy bleeding. Climate change and time zone, stress, physical and mental overload, hypovitaminosis can be provocative factors independent of age. Metrorrhagia appears sometimes in combination with the menstrual cycle, against its background (while menstruation is abundant and painful), it can occur independently, being unpredictable in duration, time of appearance and regularity.
Symptoms of pathology appear as follows:
- pains in the lower abdomen,
- heavy bleeding,
- nausea, vomiting, fainting,
- cold sweat,
- loss of appetite
Sometimes the temperature rises, there may be pain during sexual contact. The menstrual cycle itself is also broken: menstruation can linger, be too long or short, they are often painful. If the cause is blood diseases, there may be bleeding in other organs.
Metrorragia - what is it? A similar question worries many. At the doctor's office, a woman usually complains about the irregularity of menstruation and the appearance of it outside the cycle. A detailed history is collected, a general and gynecological examination, a bimanual examination of the uterus are performed. At the same time, the size of the uterus, the state of the neck and appendages are evaluated.
When hyperplasia, neoplasms are detected, diagnostic curettage of the uterus is performed, followed by histology, or scrapes are taken for biopsy. Be sure to take the analysis of biochemistry, complete blood count and urine. In the general analysis, hemoglobin and platelets are determined. An ultrasound of the uterus and its appendages is carried out, its wall thickness and dimensions are determined. Hysterosalpingography is performed, hormonal background is determined. Be sure to record the readings of blood pressure and pulse rate to eliminate extragenital causes.
Principles of treatment - complexity and timeliness. The choice of tactics is determined by the etiology of metrorrhagia. Therapy with 3 main objectives:
- Hemostasis - stop bleeding.For this purpose, uterotonics and hemostatic agents are prescribed: Ditsinon, Etamzilat, Vikasol, Aminocaproic acid, Ergotal, Tranexam, hormonal preparations of a gynecologist's choice, if metrorrhagia is of a hormonal nature. In the absence of the effect of these prescriptions, surgical intervention is performed - curettage of the uterus, or it is extruded, if necessary, radiation or chemotherapy.
- Prevention of bleeding recurrence. To do this, you need to normalize the menstrual cycle. Used hormones with the content of estrogen, progesterone and androgens.
- Restorative treatment and recovery of the body. Against the background of bleeding, a decrease in hemoglobin may be observed, therefore, iron supplements are prescribed: Sorbifer, Hemofer, Totem, Fenuls, vitamins, vitamin C - without fail. It is necessary to normalize blood clotting, correct impaired uterine contractility, remove symptoms of a pathological condition. It is prescribed necessarily fortifying therapy.
If there is no organic reason, hormonal hemostasis is prescribed. When ovarian dysfunction corrects the work of the adrenal glands and cerebral cortex, review the proper nutrition. Mandatory vitamin therapy in combination with exercise therapy.
Treatment of metrorrhagia largely depends on age, history, condition. Patients of juvenile age are prescribed mainly hormonal treatment, most often it is KOKI - Regulon, Janine, Non-ovlon, Progesterone, Biseurin, etc. The method of treatment is half a year. Scraping in young girls is not carried out only if other methods do not help. It stops bleeding, but the menstrual cycle stops for several months, so hormone therapy is needed.
In women during the period of menopause, the use of scraping followed by histology of the collected material is practiced. If atypical cells are found, the question is about amputation of the uterus. If there are only hyperplastic processes, prescribe hormones. At the same time, two possibilities are taken into account: a 17-OPC (hydroxyprogesterone capronate) is prescribed to preserve the cycle, while the woman gradually enters the menopause. In order to suppress the cycle, Testosterone is prescribed. If hormone therapy is unsuccessful, surgical treatment is carried out.
As a preventive measure for metrorrhagia, the following recommendations should be followed:
- regular visits to the doctor 2 times a year
- monogamous, protected sex,
- do not use OK and IUD,
- avoid overwork and nervous tension
- prevent unwanted pregnancy
- dress warmly and avoid hypothermia.
With age, the percentage of oncological diseases increases, so when bleeding occurs, going to the doctor is necessary. One hundred can not be done with sudden uterine bleeding:
- apply a heating pad to the stomach, only cold,
- produce douching
- take a warm bath, steam in the bath,
- take uterine-reducing drugs without a doctor’s order.
It is necessary to comply with bed rest, put cold on the lower abdomen, to compensate for the loss of fluid abundant drink. You can take hemostatics (Vikasol, Etamzilat) and then immediately consult a doctor.
Causes of Metrorrhagia
Metrorrhagia is inherent in women of different age groups - from girls in puberty to elderly women. Regardless of the cause of intermenstrual bleeding, its source is always the damaged endometrium surface, which is not associated with cyclical rejection of the basal layer. This may be an ulcer, erosion, violation of the integrity of blood vessels, endometrial hyperplastic processes, and so on. In such a situation it is very important to distinguish long periods associated with the physiological process in the endometrium from the concomitant bleeding of a different genesis.
Neuroendocrine disorders lead to the incorrect production of sex hormones and, as a consequence, to a change in the rhythm and nature of menstruation in the form of acyclic bleeding. The process is based on a breakdown in the connections between the centers of the cerebral cortex responsible for the production of sex hormones (pituitary and hypothalamus) with the ovaries and uterus. No other causes of metrorrhagia are identified. If we are talking about such bleeding, the term “dysfunctional metrorrhage” is used. Since the system of hormonal regulation is more unstable during the period of formation and during its extinction, the greatest number of cases of dysfunctional metrorrhage occur during puberty and during menopause. If metrorrhagia occurs in girls under the age of 18, it is called juvenile.
Dysfunctional metrorrhagia leads in the total number of cases of all uterine bleeding. It is of two types - ovulatory and anovulatory. Ovulatory metrorrhagia is talked about in the event that the ovulation process exists, but proceeds with deviations. The cycle remains biphasic, but the duration of each phase changes depending on which link of hormonal regulation is damaged. All violations occur according to the type of shortening of the I or II phase or the type of lengthening of the II phase of the menstrual cycle. Defective ovulation during such disorders causes infertility.
Anovulatory metrorrhage occurs much more frequently. In fact, it is menstruation without ovulation with a single-phase cycle. The cause of anovulatory metrorrhagia is the disruption of the egg maturation process:
- if a follicle with an immature egg cell undergoes reverse development (atresia of the follicle), the egg cell dies with it, without completing the maturation process,
- if the follicle matures, but the destruction of its wall with the subsequent release of a mature egg does not occur, the egg cell dies, and the follicle continues to exist in the ovary (the persistence of the follicle) increases and changes according to the type of cyst.
Both mechanisms lead to a prolongation of the proliferation phase (in fact, the cycle becomes single-phase), the growth of the endometrium and heavy bleeding.
Anovulatory metrorrhage among dysfunctional uterine bleeding occurs quite often in all age groups.
Causes of hormonal disorders in the body can be:
- stressful situations and overwork,
- deficiency of vital vitamins and other biological substances,
- diseases of the mental sphere,
- chronic diseases of the genitalia of an inflammatory nature,
- diseases of the endocrine glands,
- acute and chronic infections,
- Diseases and injuries of the nervous system.
Metroplasty in menopause can have a hormonal nature or indicate cancer pathology. Sometimes it can provoke stagnation in the pelvic area.
Post-menopausal metrorrhagium deserves close attention, when the period of extinction of hormonal function has already ended. The cause of bleeding can be serious diseases, including malignant processes of the genital sphere.
Diseases of the uterus and appendages can cause metrorrhagia. The most frequent of them are:
- polyps of the uterus mucosa,
- hormone-producing ovarian tumors,
- uterine fibroids (especially submucous localization),
- diseases of the cervix, accompanied by violation of the integrity of the integumentary epithelium,
Uterine hemorrhages can be the result of miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, whelping and some other conditions.
Non-gynecological diseases can also trigger metrorrhagia. The list of such diseases includes diabetes mellitus, heart and vascular diseases, pathologies of the circulatory system, hypertension and others.
To effectively treat uterine bleeding, you first need to determine their cause as accurately as possible.
Symptoms of metrorrhagia
Metrorrhagia is characterized by acyclicity, irregularity and unequal blood loss. In addition to uterine bleeding outside menstruation, metrorrhagia may experience symptoms of the disease by which it is caused.
If there is significant blood loss, women feel general weakness, dizziness, nausea, fatigue. Sometimes there is a decrease in blood pressure, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat).
Metrorrhagia can occur with severe pain and fever if the bleeding is caused by acute conditions such as a submucous (submucosal) myoma node or an ectopic pregnancy.
Dysfunctional metrorrhagia is associated with the menstrual cycle and manifests itself in various variants of deviation from the norm that is customary for each woman. Menstruation may begin prematurely or be delayed, have different duration and intensity.
The lack of ovulation makes the cycle single-phase - the proliferation phase lasts a long time, the functional layer does not reject in time, but continues to grow uncontrollably. With anovulatory metrorrhagia, the next menstruation comes with a delay (sometimes more than one month) and is accompanied by abundant prolonged bleeding. In a small number of women, menstruation does not occur, but the duration of bleeding is increased.
Postmenopausal metrorrhagia can be both scarce and significant. Regardless of the amount of blood loss, they should deserve special attention because of the risk of a malignant process. Only after exclusion of the most terrible diseases can one begin to search for other, less dangerous causes. Particularly dangerous are postmenopausal metrorrhagia.
Diagnostics metrorrhagi due to the presence of a single leading symptom of the difficulty is not. It is more difficult to find out the cause of uterine bleeding that has arisen, which is especially important in the case of dysfunctional metrorrhagia.
The diagnosis of dysfunctional metrorrhagia is called the "diagnosis of exclusion." At the initial diagnostic stage, all possible causes of bleeding are gradually excluded, if necessary, this is done in conjunction with general practitioners, hematologists, surgeons and other narrow specialists. In terms of diagnosis, the following activities are carried out:
- history (survey) of the patient, which includes information about the nature of menstruation, fertility, the presence of gynecological and other diseases, etc.,
- gynecological examination, specifying the size and texture of the uterus and appendages, the nature of the discharge, etc.,
- clinical analysis of blood for the presence of anemia and clotting disorder, biochemical blood test,
- ultrasound, which allows to determine the size of the uterus and appendages, as well as to assess the thickness of the endometrium,
- to exclude an ectopic pregnancy, hormonal examinations are conducted
- diagnostic curettage of the endometrium with subsequent histological examination,
- in rare cases, hysteroscopy or diagnostic laparoscopy may be performed.
The scope of diagnostic measures and their order are determined individually by the attending physician.
Treatment of metrorrhagia
Treatment of metrorrhagia is always complex. The main and primary task of the doctor is to stop the bleeding. The methods of hemostasis depend on the volume of blood loss and the patient's condition. If the blood loss is small, and the patient's general state of health is satisfactory, it can be confined to outpatient treatment using conservative treatment methods:
- normalization of the blood coagulation system,
- restoration of the contractile function of the uterus,
If there is no positive effect, conduct hormonal hemostasis (stop) bleeding with the help of hormonal drugs. Apply hormones on the principle of filling the missing link in hormonal regulation. The spectrum of hormonal drugs is very wide. The drug is selected according to the research data of hormonal disorders in each specific woman in order to compensate for her deviations. As a complex hemostasis, a combination of hormonal preparations with imitation of a normal menstrual cycle is used, or combined oral contraceptives with a suitable composition of hormones.
When juvenile uterine bleeding after 12 years of age, estrogen is prescribed.
If the bleeding is abundant, accompanied by a deterioration in the general well-being of the patient, hospitalization is required. Inpatient treatment of metrorrhagia may consist in the use of hormonal treatment, if the effect is negative, surgical treatment is performed - curettage of the uterus, or (extremely rarely) its removal.
After stopping the bleeding, they begin to eliminate the cause of its occurrence. It is necessary to restore the normal menstrual cycle, eliminate anemia, treat diseases that caused bleeding. A treatment plan is drawn up for each patient individually.
Dysfunctional metrorrhagia tends to relapse, so all women with this pathology are subject to follow-up.
Presence of cyclicality
Since it is known that the menstrual cycle is a phenomenon that proceeds according to a certain algorithm, a woman of childbearing age and childbearing age gets used to regular uterine bleeding - menstruation. They show that, with individual cyclical nature, the uterus prepares to accept a fertilized egg into its prepared mucosa.
In the absence of pregnancy, the entire accumulated mass of the intrauterine epithelium - the endometrium - is ejected out through the natural ways. This is the menstruation, in the next cycle, everything happens exactly the same. As the age-related data is added, the fertile function begins to fade, the pauses between menstruation become longer, the bleeding becomes irregular, then stops altogether. There comes a period of menopause or menopause.
In menopause, the period of maturation of the follicle, its growth is extended.
Ovulation may not occur - the maturation of the egg, which leads to an insufficiently complete formation of the luteal body. Accordingly, there is insufficient production of progesterone with a simultaneous excess concentration of estrogen.
All these processes lead to hyperplastic enlargement of the layer of intrauterine endometrium. It should be noted that the excessive formation of cells of the intrauterine mucosa in the menopausal period is much more common than in the reproductive age.
Bleeding is at first regular, they are taken for premature menstruation or the continuation of this. Over time, the acyclic nature of these phenomena is more and more apparent, which is associated with an increase in hyperplastic processes in the endometrium and damage to the deeper layers.
Causes of metrorrhagia
Too active proliferation of the endometrium with age-related extinctions of childbearing abilities is compounded by comorbid diseases corresponding to age. This can be attributed, above all, immune depression. It develops regardless of the conditions of life, but the depth of suppressive phenomena depends on the degree of influence of negative factors.
The weakening of the body's ability to withstand the phenomena that lead to the formation of malignant mutations in the cells, adversely affects the abnormal processes of proliferation of the endometrium. Hyperplasia contributes to the appearance of oncological diseases of the female genital area. It turns out a vicious circle.
It must be remembered that metrorrhagia in the period of extinction of the function of childbearing may indicate pathological processes not only in the mucous layer of the uterus, but the muscle layer - myometrium, as well as in the hypothalamus the structure of the brain responsible for the central regulation of the menstrual cycle.
The risk of bleeding in menopause
The appearance of irregular bleeding with symptoms of general malaise in the period after forty-five to fifty years against the background of the cessation of fertility is an indisputable reason to consult a gynecologist.
The danger of such conditions is not only in blood loss, the development of anemia or general weakening of the body. This indicates the presence of hyperplasia processes, excessive formation of the intrauterine or muscular layer of an organ. A reminder of the most complicated device of the menstrual cycle, which has not only local, but also central control, will be useful.
The appearance of metrorrhagia in the absence of egg maturation can speak of malignant proliferative processes of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, possibly the hypothalamus.
Features of the disease
Metrorrhagia is uterine bleeding that is not associated with menstruation. Such a pathological condition can occur at any age. Often diagnosed metrorrhagia in postmenopausal women. In a healthy woman, the duration of the menstrual cycle ranges from 26-30 days. The menstrual cycle is a complex process in which there is a restructuring of the body. During this period, the old endometrium is rejected and replaced with a new one. This process is manifested by bleeding.
All the changes are aimed at preparing for the conception and bearing of the child. The cycle consists of 2 phases. In the first phase, there is a change in the endometrium of the uterus. Then ovulation occurs. This is the process of release of the mature sex cell into the abdominal cavity. Если в этот период не происходит оплодотворения, происходит отторжение поверхностного слоя эндометрия, что проявляется кровотечением. При метроррагии цикл нарушается.Metrorrhagia is not an independent disease, but a clinical syndrome. It can accompany various diseases. This complaint is very common among girls and adult women when referring to a gynecologist. Metrorrhagia is ovulatory and anovulatory.
The causes of metrorrhagia are different. This condition can be observed in the following diseases and pathological conditions:
- cervical erosion,
- uterine fibroids,
- myoma node,
- ovarian tumor
- hormonal disorders,
- mental illness
- brain injury,
- acute and chronic infectious diseases,
- endocrine pathology.
A common cause of this disease is stress, overwork, exposure to the body of harmful production factors. Bleeding can provoke chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs. Half of the patients with chronic salpingoophoritis form metrorrhagia. It can be combined with menorrhagia (heavy menstruation). A common cause is chronic endometritis. Less commonly, atony of the uterus, mechanical injury to it, and impaired blood clotting cause the bleeding.
With metrorrhagia, general well-being may deteriorate. This condition is characterized by the following symptoms:
- general malaise,
- abundant or smearing bloody discharge from the genitals,
- lower abdominal pain
Nausea is often observed. Some sick women take bleeding for menstrual, while not referring to a doctor. The menstrual cycle itself is also broken. Menstruation may be prolonged or delayed. To diagnose in such a situation can only be a doctor. If bleeding occurs, you should immediately contact a specialist and be examined. In the absence of curative measures, metrorrhagia can cause massive blood loss and severe anemia. If uterine bleeding is observed on the background of blood diseases, then the other woman may be disturbed by other bleeding (gastrointestinal, gingival bleeding).
Forms of the disease
Very often anovulatory metrorrhagia is detected. It develops more often ovulatory. In this situation, the release of the egg in women does not occur, and the cycle proceeds in phase 1. This condition is possible with atresia of the follicle or with difficulty in the release of the egg. Functional bleeding from the genitals is not associated with organic diseases. The cause may be overwork, stress, vitamin deficiencies. Women aged 40–50 years often develop premenopausal metrorrhagia. During the premenopausal period hormones change. There is a decrease in the synthesis of estrogen. Ovarian activity is reduced.
If there is uterine bleeding in premenopause, this may indicate a polyp. Bleeding is also found in older women. This is about metrorrhagia in menopause. The main causes are hormonal changes and genital tumors. The most common cause is a tumor in the ovaries. In postmenopausal menstruation is normal. Spotting in this case is an alarming sign. Such a condition may indicate adenomyosis, polyps, cancer.
Bleeding with inflammation of appendages
Bleeding that is not associated with the menstrual cycle can be a sign of chronic inflammation of the uterus (adnexitis). The disease is otherwise referred to as salpingoophoritis. In most cases, the disease has an infectious nature. The main pathogens are staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, viruses, gonococci, E. coli. In most cases, the mucous membrane of the fallopian tubes initially inflames, and then the ovaries are involved in the process. Microorganisms are able to penetrate organs through the blood, external genital organs, lymph or from the intestine.
Chronic adnexitis is characterized by the following features:
- unpleasant sensations during sexual intercourse,
- increased body temperature
- painful menstruation.
Oligomenorrhea is less common (short bleeding). Chronic adnexitis (salpingo-oophoritis) can lead to colitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, neurosis, miscarriages, and ectopic pregnancy. The most terrible complication is the development of infertility.
Diagnostic and therapeutic measures
In order to eliminate bleeding, it is required to identify the underlying disease. The treatment will be directed to him. Diagnostics includes collecting history of the disease and life history, conducting a two-handed gynecological examination, ultrasound of the uterus and appendages (fallopian tubes and ovaries), conducting hysterosalpingography, urinalysis, smear, general and biochemical blood analysis, determination of sex hormones in the blood. When a neoplasm is detected, a biopsy may be required, followed by histological and cytological examination. Functional tests may be performed to determine ovarian function.
Of great importance is the collection of anamnesis. During it, the main complaints are determined. Possible risk factors for metrorrhagia (use of intrauterine devices, the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases, endocrine pathology, the use of hormonal agents) can also be identified. Tactics of treatment depends on the following factors:
- the age of the patient
- having children
- the severity of the disease
- presence of comorbidities.
Most often, young girls are prescribed hormones. Treatment depends on the underlying disease. In chronic salpingoophoritis, antibiotics, infusion therapy, and vitamins are prescribed. After subsiding, the main symptoms can be autohemotherapy, physiotherapy. Patients should follow a diet. If chronic endometritis is detected, antibiotic therapy is carried out. If necessary, hysteroscopy and hormone therapy can be performed. Detection of polyps and tumors of the uterus is an indication for surgical treatment. Polyps are removed, and then scraping is organized.
If metrorrhagia is caused by a benign tumor (myoma), the treatment can be conservative and surgical. The last option is the most effective. The following types of surgery can be performed:
- removing nodes
- treating myomatous nodes
- uterus removal,
- minimally invasive operations (embolization of arteries).
Treatment is organized only after consulting a doctor. No need to try to get rid of metrorrhagia on your own. Self-medication can harm.
How to prevent illness
In order to prevent uterine bleeding that is not associated with the menstrual cycle, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
- visit the gynecologist at least 1 time in six months,
- perform pelvic ultrasound every year,
- not to have casual sex
- do not use intrauterine devices,
- follow the rules of intimate hygiene,
- stop taking hormonal contraceptives
- lead a healthy lifestyle,
- eat right,
- eliminate the possibility of unwanted pregnancy
- have one permanent sexual partner
- eliminate stressful situations
- dress warmly in cold weather
- take vitamins
- eat full.
Inflammatory diseases of the genital organs in women are often caused by sexually transmitted infections. In this situation, you need to use a barrier method of contraception. Thus, metrorrhagia can occur in both young girls and elderly women. The older the patient, the higher the likelihood of having a serious pathology. To avoid complications, with bleeding should consult a gynecologist.
Metrorrhagia: symptoms and characteristics of the disease
Under the word "metrorrhagia" experts mean uterine bleeding associated with a violation of its functioning and often not dependent on the inflammatory processes occurring in it. At the same time, this bleeding has no relation to malignant or benign formations, and it can be recognized only if it did not happen at the very beginning of the menstrual cycle. Metrorrhage has no particular symptoms, which complicates its diagnosis.
- It is easiest to recognize metrorrhagia if discharge is found separately from the menstrual cycle. If the bleeding coincided with it, then we can talk about metrorrhagia when the duration of the hemorrhage exceeds 7 days.
- The main "symptom" of uterine bleeding - the lack of systematic. It not only occurs on any day of the cycle, but also in women of all ages. But at the same time, there are “risk groups” in which the probability of the appearance of metrorrhagia is significantly higher than in others: menopausal age and adolescence.
- Anovulatory metrorrhagia is a kind of failure of the menstrual cycle, during which it loses its active phases, since ovulation does not occur, but the endometrium (uterine membrane) grows, which is subsequently rejected and removed from the body. In the 1st phase of the menstrual cycle, this process usually occurs within 24 hours, but with anovulatory metrology, it stretches for almost the same period as normal menstrual bleeding. In 80% of cases, anovulatory metrorrhagia causes delays in the menstrual cycle. This process is peculiar to adolescents, as well as to women who are close to the menopause zone, as a result of which they rarely receive special attention.
- Juvenile metrorrhagia is a peculiar subspecies of anovulatory, but inherent only to girls entering puberty. It does not need treatment because it is a natural process arising due to instability of the hypothalamus.
- Postmenopausal metrorrhagia occurs due to a strong decrease in ovarian activity, leading to a complete absence of menstrual bleeding. Normally, they should disappear altogether, and if vaginal discharge appears, it signals serious disturbances in the reproductive system: in particular, the appearance of cancer cells in the uterus or substandard formations. This situation requires mandatory treatment to the doctor.
Separately, it should be mentioned that the diagnosis “metrorrhagia” can be specified by acute or chronic form: the latter is made if such uterine bleeding violates the established schedule of the menstrual cycle, the acute form of metrorrhagia is situational, it often happens only once a year. None of these cases does not need urgent treatment, because most often the condition of the body is restored on its own, unless the bleeding has occurred in postmenopausal women.
As for the process of diagnosing metrorrhagia, in 95% of cases it is established only on the basis of a woman’s complaints, and only rarely does an analysis are performed, scraping the cells from the uterine cavity. This allows not only to establish the diagnosis, but also to determine the cause of bleeding outside the cycle.
Is it possible to cope with metrorrhagia on your own?
Treatment of metrorrhagia should be prescribed by a gynecologist, however, women should familiarize themselves with some rules that allow to improve well-being during uterine bleeding, and also increase the likelihood of their cessation.
- A woman who has metrorrhage is required to take a horizontal position, slightly raising her pelvis relative to her body. You can put a cool (not cold!) Wet towel on the lower abdominal area.
- I can be useful broths that have a hemostatic effect: this effect can achieve a bark of viburnum, leaves of bergenia and yarrow, calendula. Pomegranate juice is useful for blood replenishment, and the level of iron makes it possible to increase cocoa beans and spinach.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, especially in postmenopausal women, is advisable to be seen by a doctor on the same day, when it was recorded, if it was not situational. It is undesirable to engage in self-treatment in this situation if there is no firm confidence in the reason that caused a similar reaction on the part of the organism.
Connection with the possibility of having children
Normal menstrual cycle - a prerequisite for the preparation of the uterus for bearing a possible pregnancy.
Metrorrhagia is not related to menstruation, but it can be due to hormonal disruptions, various diseases of the reproductive system, which can lead to infertility. Therefore, the treatment of the disease, especially in the reproductive age, must be started immediately when the first symptoms are detected.
If metrorrhagia is not amenable to treatment with the methods of drug therapy, the bleeding continues and significantly affects the patient's well-being, the operation is prescribed. With heavy painful bleeding, curettage of the uterus can help. In extreme cases, its removal.
With dysfunctional metrorrhagia, relapses are not uncommon, therefore, after treatment, the patient should be regularly monitored by the gynecologist for some time.