Menstruation leads to periodic changes in the body of a woman of reproductive age. The goal of these transformations is to prepare for the emergence of a new life.
Typically, the menstrual cycle is 28 days. Valid shifts are readings within 21–35 days. Its duration may change under the influence of various factors.
The menstrual cycle leads to certain changes in the ovaries of a woman, which are usually divided into phases such as follicular, ovulatory and luteal. The first day of menstruation is considered the beginning of the cycle, and the day before the start of the next menstruation is the final day.
Let us consider in more detail the phases of the menstruation cycle by days.
The duration of the first phase of menstruation is, on average, 14 days. The first 4–5 days is the time of menstruation. Then the body begins to prepare for a possible pregnancy. Estrogen production increases, which contributes to the growth of follicles and affects the maturation of the egg. The growth of a new layer of epithelium begins, and the preparation of the uterus for implantation of a new egg cell.
This phase in the first days is characterized by pain, irritability and pain in the lower abdomen. Then the state gradually stabilizes.
Starts on the 14th - 15th day of the cycle. Among the three phases of the female cycle, it is the shortest by the day — about three days. In a woman's body, the largest amount of estrogen is synthesized. The follicles are broken, and the egg is released into the abdominal cavity with further advancement into the opening of the fallopian tube. The life of the egg is small - only 24 hours. But this time is the most suitable for planning a pregnancy.
Accurate determination of which day of the cycle the ovulatory phase began, will be measured by basal body temperature. These days it is elevated.
This is the time between ovulation and the onset of new menstruation or pregnancy. Some women do not know on which day the beginning of the luteal phase of the cycle falls.
The third phase begins, approximately 15–17 days in a cycle, and lasts, on average, 14 days.
During this period, the uterus prepares for the adoption of the egg. When fertilization occurs - the egg is fixed in the uterus. Otherwise, there is a gradual rejection of the outer layer of the endometrium and a new cycle begins.
The menstrual cycle is a delicate and complex mechanism, on the success of which the reproductive health of a woman depends. Knowledge of the phases of the menstrual cycle by days, will allow you to more understand your body and in accordance with this build your plans.
Menstruation cycle by day
During each menstruation, significant changes periodically occur in the body, which are intended by nature for the birth, preservation and development of a new life. Normally, the cycle is 28 days, with small deviations in one direction or another. Even with the same woman with a well-established cycle, its duration can sometimes vary for various reasons. But these fluctuations should not occur often and not exceed 3-4 days. At this time, continuous complex processes occur in the ovaries, which are characterized by the appearance of a new state — either pregnancy, or the expectation of the next menstruation. The beginning of the cycle is considered to be the beginning of menstruation, that is, its first day, and the end is considered to be the last day before the next menstrual periods.
Phases of the menstrual cycle by day are as follows.
The cycle originates from the follicular phase, lasting on average about 14 days. In the first 4 to 5 days, menstruation passes, after which the body begins preparing for a possible pregnancy under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), produced by the pituitary gland. Follicles develop in the ovaries, the shell of which produces estrogen. Several follicles can simultaneously develop in them, but under the influence of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone, only one of them reaches the dominant size and can continue to develop. The rest are regressing. In addition to the development of the follicle, during this period, a detached layer of the endometrium is removed from the uterus, which is excreted with secretions, that is, menstruation occurs. In the uterus, a new layer of the endometrium is building up, designed to receive a fertilized egg.
From the 15th day, the ovulatory phase of the menstruation cycle begins, by days it is considered the shortest. The existence of an egg cell capable of fertilization is small — only a day, but according to some sources it can last up to 2 days. At this time, an increase in the level of the hormone LH is observed, and the concentration of FSH, on the contrary, decreases. But it is at this time that the egg is ready for fertilization. It moves along the tube with the help of epithelial villi. Further fate offers two options: fertilization and further development, or without waiting for fertilization, death and dissolution in the endometrial mucosa.
Despite the allotted short time, to track the exact time of the beginning of the ovulatory phase can be on elevated basal temperature. With anovascular cycle, this phase does not occur. The follicle in this case develops and matures, but does not burst, but dissolves.
The period that continues after ovulation of the egg before pregnancy (in cases of a fertilized egg), or before the next menstruation, is considered to be the luteal phase or another name - the phase of the corpus luteum. This phase begins between 15 and 17 in the afternoon and lasts about 14 days. When the egg leaves the bursting follicle, it is transformed into a corpus luteum, a temporary gland that is necessary for the production of progesterone, which prepares the uterus for the onset of pregnancy and preserves it. The uterus at this time receives the fertilized egg and fixes it in its shell.
This phase has a second purpose, the secretory one, due to the fact that under the action of progesterone, the glands located in the endometrium begin to produce a special secret that nourishes the embryo throughout pregnancy. The increase in progesterone and estrogen causes swelling of the breast, preparing it for the upcoming feeding. If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium is gradually rejected and removed along with the new menstruation. This is the beginning of the next cycle.
According to this scheme, each menstruation cycle develops in a healthy body of a woman, all three phases in it are in close connection and pass one after the other.